Esophageal cancer is the third leading cancer in males
and fourth leading in females in India, but not much
is known about the molecular etiology of the disease.
We have used DNA microarray technology for high throughput
identification of molecular gene expression profiles.
We observed 881 genes significantly upregulated in ESCC
samples as compared to the adjacent normal epithelium.
The expression of two previously unreported overexpressed
genes, ORAOV2 and FAP, was validated
at the protein level by immunohistochemical labeling
of tissue microarrays and archival tissue sections. Overall,
using this approach, we have identified a number of promising
novel candidates that can be validated further for their
potential to serve as biomarkers for ESCC. This is a
collaborative effort between IOB, Kidwai Memorial Institute
of Oncology and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Similarly,
we are working on copy number variations in ESCC using
Similar approaches are adopted for diverse cancers such
as pancreatic cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, gall bladder
carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, leukoplakia and
oral squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer and retinoblastoma.
Other diseases for which transcriptomic profiling are
being done include temporal lobe epilepsy, tuberculous
meningitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathy
and reactive arthritis. We also use this technology
to identify subset of genes which are responsible for
the development of skin lesions in arsenic exposed patients.